"Kulturkampf “ – Culture Clash. The German term that refers to Germany’s policies of favoring secularity and limiting the role and power of the Roman Catholic Church in Prussia, Germany. It was implemented in the 1870’s by the Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck. The term “Kulturkampf “ came into use in 1873, when the scientist and Prussian liberal statesman/friend of Rizal, Rudolf Virchow declared that the battle with the Roman Catholics was assuming “the character of a great struggle in the interest of humanity.” In the concluding years of the Kulturkampf upheavals, Rizal made his sojourn to Germany. It exposed him to the liberal minds of Germany and it also gave reasons to the church and authorities in the Philippines to scrutinize his true activities in Germany. “Doctor Uliman" or "German doctor, “German spy” were labels that somehow ask whether it was a handiwork or a provocation by the church to be able to pin down Rizal. The theme of "Kulturkampf" will eventually find its way in Dapitan, in the letters/debate between Jesuit Fr. Pablo Pastells and Rizal.
Caricature of the Pope playing a chess match against Bismarck.."Zwischen Berlin und Rom (between Rome and Berlin)
"Kanzelparagraph" or the The Pulpit Law was an 1871 section (§ 130a) to the Strafgesetzbuch (the German Criminal Code) which outlawed criticism of the state from any pulpit.
Wilhelmsfeld was an "observation ground" for Rizal. Broadening his views on the subject of the relationship between state and church. He had deep discussions about religion with protestant pastor Karl Ullmer
|Otto von Bismarck- Blut und Eisen..blood and iron|
German caricature highlighting the battle of Bismarck against the catholic religious orders.